HomeSpiritualityTwo Differences between Forgiveness and Reconciliation

Two Differences between Forgiveness and Reconciliation

shaking handsSometimes we hesitate to forgive because we think it must automatically include reconciliation. These are two separate processes, and one does not always lead to the other.

1. One person can forgive; it takes two to reconcile.

With God’s help, I have the power to forgive anything. That doesn’t mean that I’m willing to forgive anything or that it will be easy. And sometimes a wrong is so heinous that it can take the rest of my life to forgive completely. But the possibility is there. My capacity to forgive does not depend on anyone else’s behavior or permission. The person I forgive can continue to be cruel, thoughtless, and relentlessly set against me. But he or she cannot command my spirit to offer or withhold forgiveness. Forgiveness is a spiritual act, which means that, ultimately, I rely on God’s grace to accomplish it. In fact, my own faults and weaknesses will get in the way of my ability to forgive, especially in some situations. But whatever I’m lacking, God can supply. At times my need for God’s assistance is acute, but when I choose to forgive, my effort does not rely on any other person.

Reconciliation is a multiple-person process. When I reconcile with another person, both of us must first ask and/or offer forgiveness. But it must go further than that. Both people choose to do whatever it takes to restore the relationship. One person can be completely willing, but if the other person is not willing, reconciliation is not possible. This means that I can forgive someone for damaging our friendship, but perhaps I don’t feel safe enough to resume the friendship. That might happen later, but for now I will forgive and leave it at that. Or I might forgive and be ready to reconcile, but the other person no longer desires this relationship. Or the other person can forgive me but not want to reconcile; or the other person forgives me but I don’t want to reconcile. It’s worth noting here that some damage occurs in relationships that are out of balance to begin with, such as the friendship in which one person is needy and the other one always comes to the rescue. In such cases, reconciliation—if it should happen at all—will require a complete reconstruction and that only after one or both people have dealt with their individual issues. Reconciliation can be long and painful and messy, but it can also be well worth all the turmoil if the relationship is indeed restored. Sometimes restored relationships are stronger than they were before all the trouble.

2. Forgiveness is an interior discipline; reconciliation is an outward process.

Forgiveness is a private and ongoing discipline of mind, heart, and soul. Actually, forgiveness is one aspect of an overall posture toward others and life itself. If I am judgmental and vindictive in general, forgiveness will be an awkward and difficult change of direction for me. If I hope to forgive specific wrongs others commit against me, then I should be practicing this very day to look at others with openness and compassion, to be slow to place blame, to resist seeking revenge. And I can practice forgiveness without anyone else knowing what is happening inside me. I may be terribly hurt at something another person said, and I know that before I confront that person in any way, I need to choose forgiveness. I might silently work on forgiveness—in my prayer, meditation, talks with a counselor or spiritual director—for days or weeks without talking directly to the person whose words hurt me so. In some cases, I might go through that private process, realize that the wrong wasn’t as blatant or as intentional as I first thought, and then get over it completely without the other person ever knowing about my struggle.

Reconciliation is not private because it must include at least one other person. Sometimes reconciliation includes others as well, such as pastors, mediators, and counselors. When I’m working on reconciliation, of course I do my own interior work, but I must also cooperate with the larger work that involves others’ schedules, personal difficulties, and needs. I may feel a burning desire to have a discussion immediately and try to restore this friendship, but the other person has a lot going on—dealing with her teenager, pressures at work, or health problems—and she simply cannot enter such a heavy conversation yet. My loved one may want to reconcile now and move back home, but I know that until she has received professional help for her substance abuse or mental-health problems, such a move would be a mistake and likely result not in reconciliation but a bigger mess. Reconciliation is as complicated as the people involved, and it can require more time and patience than forgiveness because of all the moving pieces. Another huge factor in reconciliation is the inclusion—or, intrusion—of other friends and family members. Additional people can provide strength, encouragement, and wisdom. They can also provide more opportunities for argument, miscommunication, and flawed strategies.

  • How do you deal with the gap between forgiveness and reconciliation?
  • How do you know when forgiveness must be enough for now?
  • How do you know when it’s time to try reconciliation?

Pray with this reflection for how we might move forward in forgiveness and reconciliation.

Vinita Hampton Wright
Vinita Hampton Wright
Vinita Hampton Wright edited books for 32 years, retiring in 2021. She has written various fiction and non-fiction books, including the novel Dwelling Places and spirituality books Days of Deepening Friendship, The Art of Spiritual Writing, Small Simple Ways: An Ignatian Daybook for Healthy Spiritual Living, and, most recently, Set the World on Fire: A 4-Week Personal Retreat with the Female Doctors of the Church. Vinita is a spiritual director and continues to facilitate retreats and write fiction and nonfiction. She lives with her husband, two dogs, and a cat in Springdale, Arkansas.


  1. Forgiving one another just as God has forgiven us in Christ. I have come to the biblical realization that I need to forgive regardless of the offender’s response. As a matter of fact forgiveness should be initiated by the one who was offended. Because that’s the way it has been from the beginning. God was the offended and He took the initiative to forgive Adam and Eve. And I have seen this pattern through the scripture. In the Lord’s prayer we see Jesus says to take the initiative and forgive. Because God did it , we too must do it. Forgiveness should never wait for the offender to make the first move. We must forgive the way God forgives.

  2. Forgiveness is a difficult concept to understand. Humans really don’t get it. When Jesus gave his life on the cross for us, this was a FREE gift to all mankind. Weather we choose to accept that gift is up to us. When we forgive, we do it for us, not them. Forgiveness opens the door for the other person to accept or reject our love and forgiveness, but like with the cross, that choice is their’s to make.
    We forgive people for us, not for them. This enables US to move forward with life, free from the bitterness and anger we hold inside. True forgiveness is freedom. Freedom from the anger inside, from the constant thinking about what they did, freedom to move forward with our lives.
    We do not and should not forgive expecting a reciprocal action on their part. If we do, then we really haven’t forgiven them. Only God can give us the ability to fully forgive as he showed that thru his actions on the cross.

  3. I agree that reconciliation needs both parties to work on it while forgiveness is an interior discipline which is personal. But I believe that true forgiveness is expressed by being charitable to the offender.

  4. If a person is abused physically, psychologically or emotionally, and it’s intentional by a substance abuser or a mental disordered person, that the innocence person ingests their toxicity. And most likely coming from a place of sadistic cruelty with no remorse from the perpetrator, nor will there be reconciliation, then isn’t “forgiveness” the act of siphoning out the poison to heal and recover using self-love, self-worth, an act of self-preservation, in other words, it’s an internal process that doesn’t require a second person to validated it?
    So, forgiveness is the act of releasing the psychological poison inflicted by another person, to let go of any lingering struggle replaying inside an abused person’s head, to ultimately detach from another person, to attain peace of mind.

  5. If forgiveness and reconciliation are two unrelated events, and if forgiveness is a unilateral action and if that that is how God acts, then, hell is irrelevant, then repentance is unnecessary. Everyone get forgiven without repentance, everyone gets to heaven without repentance. Reconciled or not people will be together in company with each other in heaven. How then can love be expressed without reconciliation in close company?
    Forgiveness is a freely given, out of love in response to repentance. Although forgiveness springs from within but it requires external manifestation fron the other’s contrition.
    I think the problem here is the confusion of words between charity and forgiveness. It is charity that does not require the participation of the other. As when Jesus said, “love your enemy.” Forgiveness necessitates the participation of the other, charity does not, As Jesus hung dying on the cross, it was only to the repentant criminal he promised paradise, but remained charitable to the other.

    • I agree. If we are to the way God has forgiven us (Ephesians 4:32), then we must understand that forgiveness can only happen when two people are involved. Just like we don’t receive forgiveness from God unless we ask for it, the offender must seek forgiveness (whether they ask for it or the offended points out their fault) and receive forgiveness by the one who has been offended. The transaction of forgiveness is not complete unless both parties are involved.

      • You can point out ways that individuals have hurt you all day long repentance can only exist if all parties respects God’s law on forgiveness and repentance so that reconciliation can occur. You can have an entire family of professing Christians where toxic interactions exist. The reality is, even among believers we interpret God’s word and behave differently. I wish our Bible could regulate this and have us all believing and behaving with the same ethics. But it doesn’t. The Bible is simply a framework for what you are supposed to do as a human beings. Just like Jesus is the example that God the father gave His children to show them how to live right. How many people did Jesus heal and forgive sins? Some repented and some didn’t. For the ones that didn’t does mercy and grace apply to their lives just the same or do they go straight to hell?You think the Jealous religious leaders of Jesus’ time was open to reconciliation and repentance before they killed him? No. And yet Jesus still said Father forgive them for they know not what they do. That was an internal prayer directly between Jesus and His father. You have to use common sense. Folks didn’t ask for reconciliation until after Christ died. The point is, you can’t wait your entire life for people who offend you or disappoints you to see the error of their ways. Some will. But be prepared for the ones that don’t. Then what? Real forgiveness does not depend on the other person’s input or even acknowledgement. Forgiveness is for your soul not the offenders soul. Otherwise some of us will go to our grave waiting for a better interaction with people that offend us. Sometimes you have to let go and let God. Reconciliation doesn’t always apply in every case but God bless those that can experience it.

  6. “Forgiveness is a spiritual act, which means that, ultimately, I rely on God’s grace to accomplish it. In fact, my own faults and weaknesses will get in the way of my ability to forgive, especially in some situations. But whatever I’m lacking, God can supply. At times my need for God’s assistance is acute, but when I choose to forgive, my effort does not rely on any other person.”
    I find this above quote contradictory. At the beginning it say she relies on “God’s grace to forgive”; then at the end she says “my effort does not rely on any other person.” God is another person. She may mean another human being but nonetheless she relies on someone besides herself.


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